Computer system architecture перевод

All computer systems perform different functions. They input, store, process, control, and output data. There are several computer system units that perform these functions. Let’s examine computer systems from the point of view of the system designer, or architect.

Computers and their accessory equipment are designed by a computer system architect. He usually has a strong engineering background. The analyst uses a computer to solve specific problems, when the computer system architect usually designs computer that can be used for many different applications in many different businesses. For example, the product lines of major computer manufacturers such as IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation and many others are the result of the efforts of teams of computer system architects.

A potential user, applications programmer or systems analyst must understand only the functions of the major units of a computer system and how they work together.

Types of computers

The two basic types of computers are analog and digital. Analog computers simulate physical systems. They operate on the basis of an analogy to the process that is studied. For example, a voltage may be used to represent other physical quantities such as speed, temperature, or pressure. The response of an analog computer is based upon the measurement of signals that vary continuously with time. Analog computers are used in applications that require continuous measurement and control.

Digital computers deal with discrete rather than continuous quantities. They count rather than measure. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to simulate on-going, or real-time processes. Because they are discrete data, commercial transactions are in a natural form for digital computation. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.

Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific and industrial computer applications rely on the combination of analog and digital devices. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of microprocessors and microcomputers. An example of this growth is the trend toward installing control systems in household appliances such as microwave ovens and sewing machines. In the future we will have complete indoor climate control systems and robots to do our housecleaning. Analog sensors will provide inputs to the control centres of these systems, which will be small digital computers.

Answer the following questions:

1. Who designs computers and their accessory equipment? 2. What is the role of an analyst? 3.What functions do computer systems perform? 4. What types of computers do you know? 5.What is the principle of operation of analog computers? 6. How do digital computers differ from analog computers? 7.What are hybrid computers? 8. Where do they find application?

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Exercise 1.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

Cистемные блоки; вспомогательные устройства; разработчик компьютерной системы; различные сферы применения; корпорация цифрового оборудования; прикладной программист; системный разработчик; главные устройства компьютерной системы; моделировать физические величины; измерение сигналов; иметь дело скорее с дискретными, чем непрерывными величинами; в режиме реального времени; коммерческие операции; цифровое вычисление; аналого-цифровые компьютеры; тенденция к установке систем управления.

Exercise 2.Выберите подходящее слово.

1. Computer and their _____ equipment are designed by a computer system architect. (engineering, accessory, specific)

2. Digital computers use numbers instead of analogous physical _____.

(symbols, equipment, quantaties)

3. Computers can store, retrieve and organize much more information than ____ of humans possess. (capabilities, capacities, accuracy)

4. The analyst ______ a computer for solving problems, while the computer system architect ________computers. (requires, designs, uses)

5. The use of ____ computers will continue to increase with the growth in applications of microprocessors and minicomputers. (analog, digital, hybrid)

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Exercise 1.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление слов one, that, those.

1. One more advantage of microelectronics is that smaller devices consume less power. 2. In analogue computer the agreement is a mathematical one. 3. One uses computers in all forms of automatic control industry. 4. In one hour the machine can perform this work. 5. One of the most important developments of the 20th century is the computer. 6. This computing machine differs from that computer. 7. She says that it is the latest model. 8. This is the computer that your brother will buy. 9. Some features of this minicomputer are better than those of that desktop computer. 10. Mini computers have a size, power and cost between those of microcomputers and mainframes. 11. Look at the other alternatives to choose the best one. 12. The arrangement of keys on a computer keyboard is very similar to that on a typewriter keyboard.

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Exercise 2.Замените выделенные слова местоимениями one/ones.

1.There are several methods that can be used and we will look at each method with its advantages and disadvantages. 2. There is a variety of computer languages and the language that is chosen for a particular job depends on the job that is being done. 3. A zip file is a file that has been compressed before being put on the disk. 4. Faster storage devices are used and the main storage devices are as follows. 5. Notebooks have no mouse, although you can connect a mouse. 6. Another device, and very effective device, is the mouse. 7. Simple BASIC programs can be written right at the terminal. Complex programs require programming technique. 8. You can replace the current drive with the drive that stores more. 9. Replace old versions of your documents with newer versions. 10. The modem converts the analogue signal back into digital signal.

Exercise 3. Замените выделенные слова местоимениямиthat /those /these.

1.Palmtops have calculating facilities similar to the facilities of a fully featured calculator. 2. It is a technology used to improve the resolution on flat-panel displays, like displays used on notebook computers. 3. Data files are the files you create and save. 4. Screens of palmtops are smaller than screens of notebooks. 5. You may easily install hardware in addition to the hardware you have.

Вспомните образование страдательного залога

to be (в нужном времени) + 3-я форма глагола.

Exercise 4.Преобразуйте следующие предложения действительного залога в страдательный. For example: People widely use computers. – Computers are widely used by people.

1. This file keeps a lot of information. 2. He looks for the reliable data. 3. It processes the given results. 4. PC uses the keyboard. 5. The computer stored all the data. 6. The engineer adjusted a new program. 7. The device will execute a set of instructions 8. It’ll perform a given task.

Exercise 5.Раскройте скобки и выберите глагол в требуемом залоге: действительном или страдательном.

1. Electronic devices_____ (use; are used) in scientific research.

2. Before the invention of the transistor its function______ (performed; was performed) by vacuum tubes.

3. The reliability of electronic systems ______ (connect; is connected) with the number of discrete components.

4. Semiconductor integrated circuits ______(helped; were helped) to increase reliability of devices.

5. New types of integrated circuits ____(have developed; have been developed) lately.

Exercise 6.Переведите предложения, содержащие Participle II.

1. The results obtained are of particular importance for our research.

2. When written in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language.

3. Key-to-disk devices used as data recording stations can correct data before it will be stored on a magnetic disk.

4. A PC is a small computer based on a microprocessor.

5. The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to and from the storage medium is called access time.

6. When properly programmed computers don’t make computational errors.

7. As contrasted with the analyst, the computer system architect designs computers for many different applications.

8. Data recorded in the form of magnetized dots can be arranged in a certain way.

9. When keyed the data are held in a small memory called buffer.

10. Improved methods of obtaining three-dimensional television pictures have been worked on the basis of holography.

Exercise 7.Назовите три формы следующих неправильных глаголов.

To be; to have; to mean; to learn; to become; to bring; to know; to think; to but; to pay; to take; to do; to begin; to give; to make; to keep; to get; to read; to show.

Exercise 8.Переведите предложения.

1. Какие вспомогательные устройства вы знаете?

2. Данные обрабатываются с помощью компьютера быстрее, чем несколькими специалистами вручную (by hand, manually).

3. У цифрового и аналогового компьютера разные способы обработки данных.

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4. Результаты проверяются в арифметическом блоке.

5. Набор инструкций выполняется блоком управления и контроля.

Exercise 9.Преобразуйте следующие предложения в The Past Simple Tense.

1. Many people have an opportunity to use computers. 2. There is no doubt that computers solve problems very quickly. 3. Instructions direct the operation of a computer.4.Computers bring with them both economic and social changes.5.Computing embraces not only arithmetic, but also computer literacy (компьютерная грамотность). 6. Computers prepare lab-tests. 7. Those persons are computer literate and think of buying a new computer. 8. They receive a subscription magazine once a month. 9. Experts know much about how to prepare program. 10. There are many different computers nowadays.

Exercise 10.Tell about types of computer (8-10 sentences)

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-08-26; Нарушение авторского права страницы

As we know all computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting. Now we’ll get acquainted with the computer system units that per­form these functions. But to begin with let’s examine computer systems from the perspective of the system designer, or archi­tect.
It should be noted that computers and their accessory equip­ment are designed by a computer system architect, who usually has a strong engineering background. As contrasted with the analyst, who uses a computer to solve specific problems, the computer system architect usually designs computer that can be used for many different applications in many different business. For example, the product lines of major computer manufactur­ers such as IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation and many others are the result of the efforts of teams of computer system architects.
Unless you are studying engineering, you don’t need to be­come a computer system architect. However, it is important that as a potential user, applications programmer or systems analyst you understand the functions of the major units of a computer system and how they work together.
Types of computers
The two basic types of computers are analog and digital. Analog computers simulate physical systems. They operate on the basis of an analogy to the process that is being studied. For example, a voltage may be used to represent other physical quan­tities such as speed, temperature, or pressure. The response of an analog computer is based upon the measurement of signals that vary continuously with time. Hence, analog computers are used in applications that require continuous measurement and control.
Digital computers, as contrasted with analog computers, deal with discrete rather than continuous quantities. They count rather than measure. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to simulate on-going, or real-time processes. Because they are discrete events, commercial transactions are in a natural form for digital computation. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.
Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific, and in­dustrial computer applications rely on the combination of ana­log and digital devices. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of mi­croprocessors and microcomputers. An example of this growth is the trend toward installing control systems in household ap­pliances such as microwave ovens and sewing machines. In the future we will have complete indoor climate control systems and robots to do our housecleaning. Analog sensors will provide in­puts to the control centres of these systems, which will be small digital computers.

Text 1. COMPUTER SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE.

As we know all computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting. Now we’ll get acquainted with the computer system units that perform these functions. But to begin with let’s examine computer systems from the perspective of the system designer, or architect.
It should be noted that computers and their accessory equipment are designed by a computer system architect, who usually has a strong engineering background. As contrasted with the analyst, who uses a computer to solve specific problems, the computer system architect usually designs computer that can be used for many different applications in many different business. For example, the product lines of major computer manufacturers such as IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation and many others are the result of the efforts of teams of computer system architects.
Unless you are studying engineering, you don’t need to become a computer system architect. However, it is important that as a potential user, applications programmer or systems analyst you understand the functions of the major units of a computer system and how they work together.

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Types of computers
The two basic types of computers are analog and digital. Analog computers simulate physical systems. They operate on the basis of an analogy to the process that is being studied. For example, a voltage may be used to represent other physical quantities such as speed, temperature, or pressure. The response of an analog computer is based upon the measurement of signals that vary continuously with time. Hence, analog computers are used in applications that require continuous measurement and control.
Digital computers, as contrasted with analog computers, deal with discrete rather than continuous quantities. They count rather than measure. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to simulate on-going, or real-time processes. Because they are discrete events, commercial transactions are in a natural form for digital computation. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.
Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific, and industrial computer applications rely on the combination of analog and digital devices. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of microprocessors and microcomputers. An example of this growth is the trend toward installing control systems in household appliances such as microwave ovens and sewing machines. In the future we will have complete indoor climate control systems and robots to do our housecleaning. Analog sensors will provide inputs to the control centres of these systems, which will be small digital computers.

Текст 1. архитектуры компьютерной системы. Как мы знаем, все компьютерные системы выполняют функции ввода, хранения, обработки, контроля и вывода. Теперь мы познакомиться с компьютерной системой единиц, которые выполняют эти функции. Но для начала давайте рассмотрим компьютерные системы с точки зрения проектировщика системы или архитектора. Следует отметить, что компьютеры и их вспомогательное оборудование предназначены компьютерной системой архитектора, который, как правило, имеет сильное техническое образование. В противоположность аналитика, который использует компьютер для решения конкретных проблем, компьютерная система, как правило, архитектор проектирует компьютер, который может быть использован для различных применений в самых разных бизнеса. Например, производственные линии крупных производителей компьютерных таких как IBM, Digital Corporation оборудования и многих других являются результатом усилий команд компьютерной системы архитекторов. Если вы не изучают техники, вам не нужно, чтобы стать компьютерная система архитектор , Тем не менее, важно, что в качестве аналитика потенциал пользователя, приложения программист или систем, вы понимаете функции основных подразделений компьютерной системы и как они работают вместе. Типы компьютеров Два основных типа компьютеров аналоговые и цифровые. Аналоговые компьютеры моделировать физические системы. Они работают на основе аналогии с процессом, который изучается. Например, напряжение может быть использована для представления других физических величин, таких как скорость, температура, или давления. Реакция аналогового компьютера основан на измерении сигналов, которые непрерывно изменяются со временем. Следовательно, аналоговые компьютеры используются в приложениях, которые требуют непрерывного измерения и контроля. Цифровые компьютеры, по сравнению с аналоговыми компьютерами, дело с дискретными, а не непрерывными величинами. Они рассчитывают, а не меры. Они используют числа вместо аналогичных физических величин для имитации продолжается, или в режиме реального времени процессы. Потому что они являются дискретными события, коммерческие сделки в натуральной форме для цифрового вычисления. Это одна из причин, что цифровые компьютеры настолько широко используются в обработке бизнес-данных. Машины, которые сочетают аналоговые и цифровые возможности называются гибридных компьютеров. Многие бизнес, научные и компьютерные приложения промышленные полагаться на сочетание аналоговых и цифровых устройств. Использование комбинации аналоговых устройств будет расти с ростом применения микропроцессоров и микрокомпьютеров. Примером этого роста является тенденция к установке системы управления бытовой техникой, такой как микроволновые печи и швейных машин. В будущем мы будем иметь полные крытый системы климат-контроля и роботов, чтобы сделать нашу уборку. Аналоговые датчики обеспечивают вклад в центрах управления этих систем, которые будут небольшие цифровые компьютеры.

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