Capable a capable student capable and enthusiastic

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5 Listen and read.
A.
capable — способный
income— доход
key— ключ
level— уровень
raise— 1) поднимать; 2) растить
research— исследование
single— 1) единственный; 2) незамужний, холостой
tend— склоняться, иметь тенденцию
accordingto — согласно
bare necessities — насущныепотребности
neither… nor… — ни. ни…
seniorcitizens — пожилые люди, люди пенсионного возраста
B.
capable: a capable student, capable and enthusiastic, to be capable of doing something. It is an ambitious programme but you are capable of achieving good results.
income: a low income, a monthly income. What is your annual income? The family didn’t have any source of income when George died.
key: a key to the door, house keys, car keys, a key to happiness. Where is the key to the back door?
level: a high level, a low level, at the same level, high levels of stress at work. The river has been at its highest level for several years. The level of crime here is really high.

raise: 1) to raise something, to raise your hand, to raise oneself, to raise your voice, to raise a cup to your lips. She could hardly raise herself out of the armchair. They raised the prices. 2) to raise a child, to raise a family. For many parents raising children is a very positive thing. She was raised by her grandparents.
research: medical research, the latest research, further research on the topic, to carry out research. Recent research shows that the situation is improving. Who is carrying out the historical research of the problem?
single: 1) a single day, a single bed, every single penny. There was a single silver ring in the box. 2) to be single. Please state if you are married or single.
tend: to tend to do something. The gym tends to get very busy at about 6 o’clock. Religion is personal and I tend not to talk about it.
according to: We should work according to our plan.
bare necessities: Some families don’t have enough money for the bare necessities like food.
neither…nor: Neither he nor she has (have — informal) a key to the problem. Neither you nor we can finish the research.
senior citizens: We should have some clubs for senior citizens in our town.

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

1. To coordinate the efforts of many groups of engineers is a very difficult task.

2. The ship which is said to be loaded with timber has arrived in Glasgow.

3. The director ordered these documents to be sent off at once.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. Having tried to get through to him several times, he sent him a mes-

2. All the workers operating this equipment must read the instructions very carefully and follow them.

3. Advances in electronic techniques and the application of new materials and devices resulting from scientific research lie at the centre of the immense achievements that have been realized.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных предложений (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. If all the documents had been in order we could have signed the contract yesterday.

2. If computers had not been constructed, many scientific and engineering problems would not have been solved.

3. If the objects were moving with respect to the air, there would be a dynamic pressure acting on them, which would be in addition to the absolute pressure of the atmosphere.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 4-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й, 2-й, 3-й и 4-й абзацы.

MODERN TOWN ARCHITECTURE

1. With the formation of new schools of architecture, such features as the rational ordering of the general plan of a building, and wide employment of new materials and construction techniques enabled architects to build a large number of interesting buildings.

2. However, the architectural experiments of those years galloped too far ahead of what was really practicable. Nowadays the techniques employed by architects in the preparation of designs and the erection of buildings are those used the world over. Greatest stress is laid on simplicity and economy. For the last decades a colossal building programme has been under way; and nowhere is this more manifest than in housing construction.

3. It is something completely new in planning: open spaces between the blocks of flats, greenery all around, harmonic proportions between the nineand six- teen-storey buildings, built completely at variance with the old linear construction along the streets. In contrast to the heavy and wearying outlines of the houses of the preceding generations, the buildings have clean and uncluttered lines.

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4. Each sub-district has a personality of its own while harmonising with the whole scheme of the town. The shop buildings are also rather interesting. They often are identical in form, simple two-story buildings with enormous glassed-in fronts and a simple and severe appearance.

5. It is characteristic of the recent tendency to think not in terms of isolated blocks, but to originally link buildings with their environment. The finishing is attractive, in view of its importance as a focal point. Some of such buildings have sharply defined all-glass facade, impressive approach steps, flying staircases, expensive well-lit foyers and internal staircases. These harmonise with the external forms and find a correspondence inside the auditorium itself.

V. Прочитайте 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What is characteristic of the recent tendency in architecture?

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфи-

нитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

1. Sequoyah’s desire to preserve words and events for later generations has caused him to be remembered among the important inventors.

2. This article is expected to be published next month.

3. A few oil fields are said to be in that region.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. A precipitant which seems to be extremely slightly soluable may fail to be dissolved completely.

2. Thermistors to be used at high frequencies of input power and temperature fluctuations are considered to be high-speed thermistors.

3. Coming to the building site they found the work in full swing.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. A redistribution of charges would take place if two charged conductors were connected by a wire.

2. If one knows the frequency of the ware, one is able to determine its

3. If we had used this new method last year we would have obtained better results.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й, 2-й, 3-й и 4-й абзацы.

1. When faced with some new possibly bewildering technological change most people react in one of two ways. They either recoil from anything new, claiming that it is unnecessary, or too complicated or that it somehow makes life

less than human. Or they learn to adopt to the new invention, and eventually wonder how they could possibly have existed without it. Take computers as an example.

2. For many of us, they still represent a control to our freedom, and give us a frightening sense of a future in which all decisions will be taken by machines. This may be because they seem mysterious, and difficult to understand. Ask most people what they can use a home computer for, and you usually get vague answers about how «they’ll give you information!»

3. In fact, even those of us who are familiar with computers, and use them in our daily work, have very little idea of their work. But it does not take long to learn how to create a business programme, even if things occasionally go wrong for no apparent reason.

4. Presumably much the same happened when the telephone and the television became widespread. What seems to alarm most people is the speed of technological change, rather than change itself.

5. And the objections that are made to new technology may well have a point to them, since change is not always an improvement. As we discover during power cuts, there is a lot to be said for the oil lamp, the coal fire, and forms of entertainment, such as books or board games, that do not have to be plugged to work.

V. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

Is change always an improvement?

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

1. Maxwell found the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves to be equal to the ratio of electromagnetic to the electrostatic units of charge.

2. The device which is in the lab must be tested.

3. They are sure to have achieved much in the field of science.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).

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1. After half an hour he began to feel tired of looking at copies of agreements and bills.

2. Having investigated the substance under a microscope we came to the conclusion that it was not a pure one.

3. Now there is a real danger of the epidemic spreading wide.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. Would you do it differently if you had to do it over again?

2. It would have made small difference to the universe if I never existed.

3. A few years ago, in a storm like this, an airport would have been closed completely.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й, 2-й, 3-й и 4-й абзацы.

SOCIALISING ON THE INTERNET

1. Over the past two decades, as the price of computing has plunged, the personal computer enabled people to be more productive and gain better access to information. Now the PC is making it easier for people to reach each other, too.

2. Electronic in-boxes are flooded with e-mail. Electronic «chat» and community participation are on the rise. Chat is a fascinating phenomenon. It takes place in imaginary «rooms», where like-minded people congregate.

3. Typically, people type messages back and forth, usually to correspondent they’ve never met in person. Numerous people can communicate with each other simultaneously, and there are no long-distance charges the way there would be with a telephone. Compared to a telephone conversation, the technical quality of chat seems low. But it is ranging success despite its limitations because the human drive to connect with other people is so strong.

4. Chat rooms are filled with all kinds of people who appreciate or need the convenience of socialising from home – easily, safely and without getting dressed up.

5. Chat and other forms of socialisation on the Internet are bound to evolve. One is intrigued by efforts to create «virtual worlds», imaginary spaces in which participants choose a visual image to represent themselves. Exploration of the potential of virtual words is just beginning. This kinds of experiments are under way. Internet is a social medium, like the telephone. Enriched forms of communication – including virtual worlds – will be a large part of what it offers the real world.

V. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What forms of socialisation on the Internet are bound to evolve?

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

1. He was believed to have connections with the London branch of the firm.

2. At the rate the clerks were processing the applications, he figured that it would take four hours for him to be reviewed.

3. When the forces act in the same direction, the resultant can be found by adding the applied forces.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. The powder resulting showed no tendency to turn back into metal.

2. Storing the gas under a high pressure can allow reducing the size of the holders required.

3. It has been recently reported that the results satisfying the experimentators were obtained.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. If the structure was perfectly regular, all atoms would be in their proper places and no extra atoms would be present.

2. If the operation has been performed properly, the material will give a

negative test for unsaturation.

3. If we fed into computer first one number and then another, the result would be the sum of these two numbers.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й, 2-й, 3-й и 4-й абзацы.

ROBOTS – THE IDEAL WORKERS?

1. We hear many complaints about work in factories; the work is often boring, heavy and repetitive; the operative doesn’t have to think about the work; he gets no job satisfaction.

2. The answer is a robot. For many jobs a robot is much better than human operative. Once it has been programmed, it will do its job over and over again. It never gets bored; it works at a constant speed; it doesn’t make mistakes; its work is always of the same standard; it doesn’t get tired; it can work 24 hours a day without breaks for food, rest or sleep.

3. Robots have other advantages, too. They can be designed to do almost any job. You can’t change the human body, but robot’s arms, for example, can be made to move in any direction. Robots also can do very heavy work and they can operate in conditions that are too dangerous, too hot or too cold for people to work in. They can work under water, in poisonous gas and in radioactive areas.

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4. It is obvious that robots have many advantages over human beings. However, it is also true that humans can do many things that robots can’t. For example, humans can carry out a task without having to be told exactly how to do it

first-in other words, they don’t always have to be programmed. Humans can move, but robots are usually fixed in one place. If they are able to move, robots can do it only in a very limited way. Unlike robots, people can know whether what they are doing is good or bad, and whether it is boring or interesting. Also robots are only just beginning to be able to understand speech and writing, but humans can communicate easily with each other by these methods, and by many others – telephone, drawing, radio, and so on – as well.

5. And we should not forget that robots owe their existence to humans, we make them, repair them and control them, not the other way round.

V. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What should we remember about robots?

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

1. The storage of a computer is known to be divided into individual units called cells, each of which being capable of storing numbers or instructions.

2. Industry must recognize that a graduate will need training in the specific area in which he is working, and must also be prepared to encourage him to attend continuing education courses and/or seminars and conferences as appropriate.

3. It is hard to enumerate all the problems facing our engineers and designers in the development of flexible productions.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. Being the cheapest of the metals cast iron is widely used everywhere.

2. A neutron is a particle having the same mass as a proton but carrying no electrical charge.

3. Metals being used in industry in the form of alloys have better properties than pure metals.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. If all the people of the world counted the atoms in a drop of water they would not be able to finish their work even in ten thousand years.

2. If one knows the dimensions of the body he will calculate easily its vol-

3. If successful development in electronics had not been achieved we shouldn’t have applied a broad scale of automation now.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й, 2-й, 3-й и 4-й абзацы.

1. The bulk of our electricity is produced by conventional energy converters that are based on mechanical, indirect conversion of energy. The chemical energy of our fossil fuels is first converted into heat energy. The heat energy is converted by turbines into mechanical energy which, in turn, produces electricity by generators.

2. The efficiency of these systems is low – the step involving the generation of mechanical energy results in a 70 percent loss of energy. As a consequence of this, for many years scientists and engineers have been seeking ways to convert energy directly into electricity without the use of an intermediate mechanical energy converter.

3. It is interesting to note that not one of the advanced methods of direct energy conversion is really new in theory. These concepts were developed a long time ago, along with the development of classical physics. But to make these ideas work required a technological sophistication that became available only in the past few decades.

4. The main groups of direct energy converters are the photoelectric, thermoelectric, thermionic, magnetohydrodynamic, and electrochemical devices.

Their names indicate the physical processes by which they work. The converters listed above are those by which we now can produce electric energy in quantities sufficient for practical use.

5. Other physical effects producing electricity are piezoelectric, piroelectric, fis- sion-electric, thermomagnetic, and chemomagnetic effects. These produce small amounts of current and are used mainly in scientific measuring devices rather than as energy producers.

V. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

Where are physical effects producing electricity mainly used?

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